Ventricles and Blood Vessels
Hydrocephalus: coronal, gross. This is a post-mortem coronal section through a brain of a patient with hydrocephalus. Notice that the lateral and the 3rd ventricles are greatly enlarged. An obstruction at what point could give this pathology? (Image from the CNS Pathology site)
Hydrocephalus: horizontal, CT. This is a CT of a patient with hydrocephalus similar to that observed in the gross coronal section above. Notice the greatly enlarged lateral ventricles.
Left Ventricle Hydrocephalus: horizontal MRI. This is an MRI of a patient with an obstruction of the left foramen of Monroe, causing left ventricular hydrocephalus. Compare the relative size of the left and right lateral ventricles.
Cerebral Aqueduct Hydrocephalus: horizontal MRI. This is an MRI of a patient at the level of the cerebellum. The patient has hydrocephalus of the Cerebral aqueduct caused by a mass in the cerebellum. What other ventricles will be enlarged?
Uncal Herniation. When the flow of CSF through the ventricles is obstructed, intracerebral pressure (ICP) may increase. In this example, an increase in ICP caused the uncus and hippocampus to herniate through the tentorium, making the groove indicated by the arrow.
MRI and MR Angiograpy. This image contains an MR angiogram, which uses a pulse sequence to enhance blood flowing through vessels, and the corresponding T1 MRI. Can you identify the vessels and corresponding neuroanatomy? Labels are available. (Image from the Digital Anatomist site [J.S. Tsuruda]) Figure legend available.
Angiogram movie. This is a mini-movie of an angiogram, lateral view through the cranium. A radio-opaque dye is injected into a cerebral vessel (in this case the left corotid) in order to visualize flow (and look for pathology). Given that this is a lateral view, what vessel is this?
Optical Imaging movie. This is a mini-movie of an optical intrinsic signal produced by a sustained stimulation in rodent cortex. Large branches seen are from the rodent middle cerebral artery. Note that blood delivery to cortex is not static, rather it is dynamic, increasing in response to cortical stimulation. For reference of OIS mpeg sequences.
Supplement: Woods et al Woods, R.P., Iacoboni, M., Mazziota, J.C. (1994) "Bilateral spreading cerebral hypoperfusion during spontaneous migraine headache" NEJM 331:1689-1692. This PET imaging study of a migraine headache in progress indicates the pattern and alteration of cerebral blood flow caused by the migraine. Notice that the spreading hypoperfusion is not restricted to a single cerebral vascular zone, suggesting a primiary cortical process. Figure legend available.